A child can be created either safe (i.e., untrusted) or fully functional. In the examples so far, the children have been trusted and fully functional; they have all the basic Tcl commands available to them. An interpreter is made safe by eliminating certain commands. Table 19-2 lists the commands removed from safe interpreters. As described later, these commands can be used by the master on behalf of the safe interpreter. To create a safe interpreter, use the -safe flag:
interp create -safe untrusted
Table 19-2. Commands hidden from safe interpreters.
|exec||Executes another program.|
|exit||Terminates the process.|
|fconfigure||Sets modes of an I/O stream.|
|file||Queries file attributes.|
|glob||Matches on file name patterns.|
|load||Dynamically loads object code.|
|open||Opens files and process pipelines.|
|pwd||Determines the current directory.|
|socket||Opens network sockets.|
A safe interpreter does not have commands to manipulate the file system and other programs (e.g., cd, open, and exec). This ensures that untrusted scripts cannot harm the host computer. The socket command is removed so that untrusted scripts cannot access the network. The exit, source, and load commands are removed so that an untrusted script cannot harm the hosting application. Note that commands like puts and gets are not removed. A safe interpreter can still do I/O, but it cannot create an I/O channel. We will show how to pass an I/O channel to a child interpreter on page 283.
The initial state of a safe interpreter is very safe, but it is too limited. The only thing a safe interpreter can do is compute a string and return that value to the parent. By creating command aliases, a master can give a safe interpreter controlled access to resources. A security policy implements a set of command aliases that add controlled capabilities to a safe interpreter. We will show, for example, how to provide limited network and file system access to untrusted slaves. Tcl provides a framework to manage several security policies, which is described in Chapter 20.