a) True. b) True. c) False. The middle tier implements business logic to control interactions between application clients and application data. d) False. A dynamic Web page is a Web page that is created programmatically. e) False. The pairs are joined with an ampersand (&). f) False. XHTML documents are more efficient than CGI scripts, because they do not need to be executed on the server side before they are output to the client. g) True.