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[Page 769]

Chapter 15. Stream Input/Output

Consciousness ... does not appear to itself chopped up in bits ... A "river" or a "stream" are the metaphors by which it is most naturally described.

William James

All the news that's fit to print.

Adolph S. Ochs

Remove not the landmark on the boundary of the fields.

Amenehope

OBJECTIVES

In this chapter you will learn:

  • To use C++ object-oriented stream input/output.

  • To format input and output.

  • The stream-I/O class hierarchy.

  • To use stream manipulators.

  • To control justification and padding.

  • To determine the success or failure of input/output operations.

  • To tie output streams to input streams.


[Page 770]

Outline

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Streams

15.2.1 Classic Streams vs. Standard Streams

15.2.2 iostream Library Header Files

15.2.3 Stream Input/Output Classes and Objects

15.3 Stream Output

15.3.1 Output of char * Variables

15.3.2 Character Output using Member Function put

15.4 Stream Input

15.4.1 get and getline Member Functions

15.4.2 istream Member Functions peek, putback and ignore

15.4.3 Type-Safe I/O

15.5 Unformatted I/O using read, write and gcount

15.6 Introduction to Stream Manipulators

15.6.1 Integral Stream Base: dec, oct, hex and setbase

15.6.2 Floating-Point Precision (precision, setprecision)

15.6.3 Field Width (width, setw)

15.6.4 User-Defined Output Stream Manipulators

15.7 Stream Format States and Stream Manipulators

15.7.1 Trailing Zeros and Decimal Points (showpoint)

15.7.2 Justification (left, right and internal)

15.7.3 Padding (fill, setfill)

15.7.4 Integral Stream Base (dec, oct, hex, showbase)

15.7.5 Floating-Point Numbers; Scientific and Fixed Notation (scientific, fixed)

15.7.6 Uppercase/Lowercase Control (uppercase)

15.7.7 Specifying Boolean Format (boolalpha)

15.7.8 Setting and Resetting the Format State via Member-Function flags

15.8 Stream Error States

15.9 Tying an Output Stream to an Input Stream

15.10 Wrap-Up

Summary

Terminology

Self-Review Exercises

Answers to Self-Review Exercises

Exercises


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