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## Chapter 4. Control Statements: Part 1

Let's all move one place on.

Lewis Carroll

The wheel is come full circle.

William Shakespeare

How many apples fell on Newton's head before he took the hint!

Robert Frost

All the evolution we know of proceeds from the vague to the definite.

Charles Sanders Peirce

OBJECTIVES

In this chapter you will learn:

• Basic problem-solving techniques.

• To develop algorithms through the process of top-down, stepwise refinement.

• To use the if and if...else selection statements to choose among alternative actions.

• To use the while repetition statement to execute statements in a program repeatedly.

• Counter-controlled repetition and sentinel-controlled repetition.

• To use the increment, decrement and assignment operators.

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Outline

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Algorithms

4.3 Pseudocode

4.4 Control Structures

4.5 if Selection Statement

4.6 if...else Double-Selection Statement

4.7 while Repetition Statement

4.8 Formulating Algorithms: Counter-Controlled Repetition

4.9 Formulating Algorithms: Sentinel-Controlled Repetition

4.10 Formulating Algorithms: Nested Control Statements

4.11 Assignment Operators

4.12 Increment and Decrement Operators

4.13 (Optional) Software Engineering Case Study: Identifying Class Attributes in the ATM System

4.14 Wrap-Up

Summary

Terminology

Self-Review Exercises